woman sitting near the osfa
woman sitting near the osfa


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects people with ovaries, typically during their reproductive years. It's characterized by a combination of symptoms, including irregular menstrual cycles, excess androgen levels (male hormones), and polycystic ovaries (multiple small cysts on the ovaries).

What is PCOS?

Lifestyle Changes:

  • Healthy Diet: Adopting a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains can help manage insulin levels and support weight management. Limiting processed foods, sugary snacks, and refined carbohydrates is important.

  • Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity can improve insulin sensitivity, aid in weight management, and help regulate menstrual cycles. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week, such as brisk walking, cycling, or swimming.

  • Weight Management: Losing even a modest amount of weight (5-10% of body weight) can help improve insulin sensitivity, regulate menstrual cycles, and reduce symptoms of PCOS. A healthcare provider or dietitian can provide personalized guidance and support for weight loss goals.


  • Birth Control Pills: Oral contraceptives can regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and alleviate symptoms such as acne and hirsutism.

  • Anti-androgen Medications: Medications such as spironolactone can help reduce excess hair growth (hirsutism), acne, and male-pattern baldness by blocking the effects of androgens.

  • Metformin: This medication is commonly used to improve insulin sensitivity and regulate menstrual cycles in individuals with PCOS, especially those with insulin resistance or prediabetes.

  • Ovulation Induction: For individuals trying to conceive, medications such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole may be prescribed to induce ovulation.

  • Gonadotropins: In cases where ovulation induction with oral medications is not successful, injectable gonadotropins may be used to stimulate ovulation in combination with monitoring by a fertility specialist.

Fertility Treatments:

  • In vitro Fertilization (IVF): For individuals struggling with infertility due to PCOS, IVF may be recommended. This involves stimulating the ovaries to produce multiple eggs, which are then retrieved and fertilized in a laboratory before being transferred to the uterus.

  • Other Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART): Depending on individual circumstances, other ART procedures such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or ovarian drilling may be considered.

Managing Specific Symptoms:

  • Acne Treatment: Topical or oral medications may be prescribed to manage acne symptoms.

  • Hair Removal: Various methods of hair removal, such as shaving, waxing, laser hair removal, or electrolysis, may be used to address excess hair growth (hirsutism).

  • Scalp Hair Loss Treatment: Medications or treatments aimed at promoting hair growth may be recommended for individuals experiencing male-pattern baldness.

Regular Monitoring and Follow-up:

It's important for individuals with PCOS to have regular check-ups with healthcare providers to monitor symptoms, assess treatment effectiveness, and address any concerns or complications that may arise.

  1. Menstrual Irregularities: PCOS often causes irregular menstrual cycles, including infrequent or absent periods, due to hormonal imbalances.

  2. Excess Androgens: Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) can lead to symptoms such as acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth on the face and body), and male-pattern baldness or thinning hair.

  3. Polycystic Ovaries: While not all people with PCOS have ovarian cysts, many have enlarged ovaries containing multiple small follicles that may not mature properly.

  4. Metabolic Effects: PCOS is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to weight gain, difficulty losing weight, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol.

  5. Fertility Issues: PCOS can interfere with ovulation, making it challenging to conceive. It's a common cause of infertility in people with ovaries.

  6. Psychological Effects: PCOS may contribute to mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, possibly due to hormonal imbalances and the impact of symptoms on self-esteem.

  7. Long-Term Health Risks: Untreated PCOS increases the risk of long-term health complications, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, endometrial cancer, and sleep apnea.

How to Treat PCOS ?

PCOS: Effects and Symptoms short

PCOS, or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, is a hormonal disorder common among people with ovaries. It's characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, excess androgen levels (male hormones), and polycystic ovaries (multiple small cysts on the ovaries). Symptoms include irregular periods, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), weight gain, and fertility issues. Treatment often involves lifestyle changes, medications to regulate hormones, and fertility treatments if needed. Early diagnosis and management are important to prevent long-term health complications.